Adult breastfeeding cams
This study aimed to identify the causal effect of breastfeeding on postpartum depression (PPD), using data on mothers from a British survey, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were performed to investigate the effects of breastfeeding on mothers’ mental health measured at 8 weeks, 8, 21 and 32 months postpartum.
As a measure of depression, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used.  to screen for PPD, was collected during pregnancy at 18 and 32 weeks’ gestation, and post-natally at 8 weeks, and 8, 18, and 33 months.
The EPDS is the most frequently used screening questionnaire for PPD; the EPDS is sensitive to changes in depression over time, and has been demonstrated to be a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of both postpartum and antenatal depression .
Details of all data collected in the ALSPAC survey are available on the study website through a fully searchable data dictionary .
Our study obtained ethical approval from the ALSPAC Law and Ethics Committee and the Local Research Ethics Committees.
Following their child’s birth, they were asked at several points how they were actually feeding, and the ages at which infant formula and solid foods were introduced.
We used a sample of mothers whose children form the “core sample” of ALSPAC.
This sample consists of 14,541 pregnancies which resulted in 14,676 known foetuses; there were 14,062 live births, and 13,988 babies surviving to 1 year.
in the Appendix for precise definitions of these variables).
Thus, Model A provides a first approximation to the associations of interest, Model B estimates these relationships net of a range of potential confounders, while Model C aims to estimate causal relationships as accurately as possible by eliminating potential reverse causality arising from the fact that previously depression-prone mothers may be less likely to decide to breastfeed, or to breastfeed for shorter durations.
The association between depression and breastfeeding is always negative, but generally statistically insignificant, at 8, 21 and 33 months. The mean age of participants was 28.3 years (SD = 4.8).